The Ministry of Utmost Happiness is one of 13 novels longlisted for the prize.
Two British Smiths, Ali and Zadie, also make the cut, as do first-time novelists Emily Fridlund, Fiona Mozley and George Saunders.
The longlist includes four US writers, one year on from the prize going to its first American recipient.
They include veteran writer Paul Auster, recognised - at the age of 70 - for 4 3 2 1, his first novel in seven years.
American writers have been eligible for the £50,000 prize since 2014, a move labelled "daft" by 2011 winner Julian Barnes.
Colson Whitehead, Saunders and Fridlund make up the rest of the US contingent, while Mozley and Jon McGregor complete the quartet of UK contenders.
The longlist is completed by two Irish authors - Sebastian Barry and Mike McCormack - and two novelists who were born in Pakistan, Mohsin Hamid and Kamila Shamsie.
The list was chosen from 144 submissions published in the UK between 1 October 2016 and 30 September 2017.
2017 Man Booker Prize longlist
Paul Auster, 4 3 2 1
Sebastian Barry, Days Without End
Emily Fridlund, History of Wolves
Mohsin Hamid, Exit West
Mike McCormack, Solar Bones
Jon McGregor, Reservoir 13
Fiona Mozley, Elmet
Arundhati Roy, The Ministry of Utmost Happiness
George Saunders, Lincoln in the Bardo
Kamila Shamsie, Home Fire
Ali Smith, Autumn
Zadie Smith, Swing Time
Colson Whitehead, The Underground Railroad
Indian author Roy won the Booker in 1997 with her best-selling debut novel The God of Small Things.
Her second novel, published in June, is described by the Booker judges as "a rich and vital book [that] comes from the bowels of India".
Barry's longlisted book, Days Without End, saw the author become the first novelist to win the Costa Book of the Year prize twice.
The 62-year-old has been shortlisted for the Booker before, as have Ali Smith, Zadie Smith and Mohsin Hamid.
Baroness Lola Young, chair of the 2017 judging panel, said the 13 books "showcased a diverse spectrum - not only of voices and literary styles but of protagonists too".
This year's list of contenders has a ratio of seven men to six women - the same gender split as last year's longlist.
A six-strong shortlist will be announced on 13 September, ahead of the winning book being announced on 17 October.