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University of Moratuwa reveals an Ideal Solution to the Urban Solid Waste Problem and the Fertiliser Problem in Sri Lanka

Delta D Technology – A Patented Process for Rapid Digestion of All Types of Organic Wastes into Organic Fertiliser in 1 Day, an Ideal Solution to the Urban Solid Waste Problem and the Fertiliser Problem in Sri Lanka

Delta-D Technology is a patented process, by which, all types of organic waste, such as, domestic organic waste, sewerage, organic urban solid waste, plant wastes, such as, leaves, saw dust, tea waste, straw, paddy husk, salvinia, weeds, fruit peels, seeds and animal wastes, such as, offal, feathers, bones, skin, (in other words any type of organicwaste) etc., can be converted into organic fertilizer, with a high content of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorous (P) and Potassium (K), within 1 to 2 days. Since, the process involves automatic heating of waste material to 900C, the organic fertilizer produced is generally free from pathogens, such as, bacteria, virus and fungi, that can cause illnesses, to people, animals and plants. Eng. Prof. Anul Perera (the undersigned) has received two patents for this process from the Director of Intellectual Property of the Government of Sri Lanka.

This process has been tested with almost all types of organic waste materials. The fertilizer obtained has been successfully tested for various crops, including, rice, coconut, rubber, tea, vegetables and fruits.

Presentations,Training and Demonstrations of Delta-D Technology at Local and Internal Conferences and Workshops

I have attended the most popular and the most attended International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management, organized by Widener University, USA, held in Philadelphia, USA, during 2007, 2008 and 2009 and presented six research papers on conversion of solid and liquid wastes into organic fertilizer using Delta-D Technology. These papers were well accepted by the organizing committee and the participants. Several professors and representatives from USA companies expressed their desire to collaborate with me to use Delta-D Technology internationally. I have also presented papers at many other international conferences, as well as, Annual Sessions of the Institution of Engineers Sri Lanka and University of Moratuwa.

 

(a) Is Anaerobic Digestion of Market Garbage to Produce Biogas Technically and Economically Feasible.  S.A.S. Perera, Proceedings of the 7th Annual Symposium on Research for Industry, October 2001, pp. D1-D12, © Engineering Research Unit, University of Moratuwa                              

(b)Enhancement of the Solubility of Eppawela Rock Phosphate with Naturally Occuring Acidic Water from Paddy Fields of the Nilwala Downstream and Its Effects on Paddy Cultivation                    S.A.S. Perera and G.B. Chaminda, Proceedings of the 8th Annual Symposium on Research for Industry Aug 2002 , pp. 1-15, © Engineering Research Unit, University of Moratuwa          

  • Influence of Organic Fertiliser Fortified with Eppawela Rock Phosphate on the Cultivation of  Spinach and Curry Chillies. By S.A.S. Perera, Proceedings of The International Seminar on “The Engineer in Sustainable, Social and Economic Development – Regional Contribution Towards Agenda 21, organised by The Institution of Engineers Sri Lanka (IESL), World federation of Engineering Organisations (WFEO) and the Federation of Engineering Institutions of South and Central Asia (FEISCA), 20 Oct. 2002, pp. 62-74, © The Institution of Engineers,    Sri Lanka
  • Patented Process for Rapid Digestion of All Types of Biomass into Organic Fertiliser, a Solution to the Urban Solid Waste (USW) and to the Fertiliser Problem in Sri Lanka

by S.A.S. Perera, The Proceedings of  the 22nd International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management March 2007, pp. 1312-1319, ISSN 1091-8043 © 2007 JSWTM, Widener University, Philadelphia, USA.                                                                                                             

(f) Manufacture of Organic Fertiliser from Vegetable Market Garbage (VMG) Using

     Eppawela Rock Phosphate and Its’ Effects on Rice Cultivation by S.A.S. Perera, The

      Proceedings of  the 22nd International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management

      March 2007, pp. 1301-1311, ISSN 1091-8043 © 2007 JSWTM, Widener University,    

      Philadelphia, USA.

  • Sustainable Agricultural Practices for Developing Countries by S.A.S. Perera, P. Ratnaweera, J.N. Meegoda, The Proceedings of The First International Conference on Soil and Rock Engineering August 2007, Colombo, Sri Lanka , pp. 1-7 © The Geotechnical Society of Sri Lanka.                                                                                                                
  • Delta-D Technology, a Technically, Economically and Environmentally Feasible Solution to the Urban Solid Waste (USW) Problem and the Fertiliser Problem in Sri Lanka

by S.A.S. Perera, Annual Transactions of IESL-2007, pp.129-39, © The Institution of Engineers,    Sri Lanka.  

  • Manufacture of Detergents and Disinfectants for Tsunami Affected Areas A Case Study of Cost Effective Emergency Response to a Natural Disaster by S.A.S. Perera, Annual Transactions of IESL-2007, pp.186-93, © The Institution of IESL Engineers,

 Sri Lanka.                                                                                                                                  

  • Delta-D Initiated Microorganic Digestion of Saw Dust into Organic Fertiliser – A Technically, Economically and Environmentally Feasible Solution to the Saw Dust Problem in Sri Lanka, by S.A.S. Perera, Engineer (Journal of The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka), Vol XXXX1, No:   04,  October 2008, ISSN-1800-1122, pp.50-65, 2007, © The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka.

(n)Sustainable Agriculture Through Delta-D Technology, a Solution to Urban Solid Waste and Global Warming by S.A.S. Perera, The Proceedings of  the 24th International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management March 15-18, 2009, pp. 1601-1612, ISSN 1091-8043 © 2009 JSWTM, Widener University, Philadelphia, USA.                                                                                    

(o) Manufacture of Bioethanol from Vegetable and Fruit Waste in Sri Lanka by S.A.S. Perera, R.M.C.G. Ratnasinghe, D.C.G. Mahawatte, M.A.S. Perera, D.H.N. Perera, K.W.C. Mahesh, S.G. Walliwala. The Proceedings of  the 24th International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management March 15-18, 2009, pp. 1601-1612, ISSN 1091-8043 © 2009 JSWTM, Widener University, Philadelphia, USA.                                                                      

  • Manufacture of Organic Fertiliser from Poultry Slaughterhouse Waste Rendering Plant  Sludge Using Delta-D Technology. S.A.S. Perera, The Proceedings of  the 24th International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management March 15-18, 2009, pp. 1601-1612, ISSN 1091-8043 © 2009 JSWTM, Widener University, Philadelphia, USA.                                                                                    
  • Conversion of Coconut Water Waste Produced in Desiccated Coconut Mills into Liquid Organic  

Fertiliser Using Delta-D Technology S.A.S. Perera, The Proceedings of  the 24th International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management March 15-18, 2009, pp. 1601-1612, ISSN 1091-8043 © 2009 JSWTM, Widener University, Philadelphia, USA.                                                                                    

  • Delta-D Technology – A Patented Technology That Could Be Used To Prevent Emission Of Green House Gases From Urban Solid Waste, Agricultural Waste and Farm Waste. International Conference on Climate Change, Bio Diversity and Food Security, held in Chandigar, India on 18 Nov 2008, organized by UNESCO and The Punjab State Council of India.
  • Delta-D Technology – A Green Solution to Unsorted Urban Solid Waste (USW) Disposal Problems in Sri Lanka, Eng. Prof. S.A.S. Perera, International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment, 14 Nov 2012 pp 95-134, Earles Regency Hotel, Kandu, jointly organized by, University of Peradeniya, University of Moratuwa, University of Ruhuna, University of Melbourne Australia and University of Calgary Canada.

(t) Environmental impacts of organic fertilizer produced from industrial zone central

      effluent treatment plant sludge using Delta-D Technology, Eng. M F H M Aadhil and

      Eng. (Prof.) S A S Perera, 111th Annual Sessions of the Institution of Engineers Sri

      Lanka, Oct 23-24, 2017, pp579-587 at Wimalasurendra Auditorium of IESL.

(u)Rapid Conversion of Organic Waste and Sewerage into Organic Fertiliser to Minimise the Hassle and Cost of Handling and Sewerage Handling in Condimiums, Tall and Green Buildings. S.A.S. Perera and M.F.H.M. Aadhil, 10th ICSECM 2019, International Conference on Structural Engineering and Constructional Management,

ICSECM 2019 – Proceedings of the 10th International …

https://www.springer.com › book

ICSECM 2019. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Structural Engineering and Construction Management. Editors: Dissanayake, R., Mendis, P

 

(v)Conversion of textile industry Effluent Treatment Plant sludge into a valuable organic fertilizer using Delta-D technology, Eng. Prof. S A S Perera, Eng. M F H M Aadhil, et. al., 2017 Moratuwa Engineering Research Conference (MERCon) 29-31 May 2017 published by IEEE,

Brief Description of Delta-D Technology

Delta-D Technology is a process by which all types of organic waste matter can be digested within a few hours, by mixing with a digestive fluid called Delta-D. After digestion, an acidic organic slurry is obtained, which is mixed with Eppawela Rock Phosphate, Dolomite, Mica, etc. to increase the N/P/K/Mg and other micronutrient levels, while neutralizing Delta-D, in the organic fertilizer produced. This product is sieved and the powder is packed and sold as organic fertilizer. Undigested large particles of organic matter remaining on the sieve are recycled back to the process and the polythene, plastics, metal and glass particles that remain on the sieve are cleaned and sold to recycling companies.

The main advantage of the Patented Process is that, digestion can be done within a few hours, whereas, traditional processes, such as, composting and biogas generation require more than 3 months to digest organic waste, due to which, large quantities of Urban Solid Waste have to be stockpiled for several months, requiring large extents of land. Another advantage of this process, is that, it produces germ free organic fertilizer richer in N,P,K,Mg and other nutrients than traditional compost. The process does not produce leachate which is a highly polluting liquid with high BOD and COD values, commonly produced in open dumps, landfills and composting plants. Another unique feature of the process is the value addition to local, naturally occurring minerals, such as, Eppawela Rock Phosphate, Dolomite, Mica, etc. to produce a nutrient rich organic fertilizer. The fertiliser can be sold at a profit, so that,  the local authorities can earn money from garbage, which pollutes the environment, which has a very high hadling and transport cost. This profit can be diverted to beautification of the city and for provision of other amenities to the public.

How Delta-D Technology Solve the Garbage Problems faced by Major Cities? 

This process is a solution to the urban solid waste problem, since, it converts all types of organic waste into fertilizer in 1-2 days and gives you a product that can generate an income. Since it is a 1 to 2 day process, it does not require stockpiling of waste for several months. Leachate is not  produced in this process. The cost of fertilizer produced from this process will be around Rs. 8,000 – 12,000 per MT, depending on the organic waste to be used and will be richer in N, P and K than traditional compost. In fact, an organic fertilizer of any desired N:P:K ratio can be produced from the process. The fertilizer can be sold to the local market at a price of Rs. 10,000 – 14,000 per MT. Moreover, this process leads to automatic separation of other non-degradable material, such as plastics, glass and metal from the organic fertilizer, in a germ free condition, so that they can be recycled.

Traditional processes, such as, land filling, composting and biogas generation are extremely slow, requiring 6-9 months or more time to digest garbage. If these systems are adopted, large extents of land have to be allocated because, garbage have to be stockpiled for 6-9 months or more. As an example, if the daily collection of garbage is 1000 MT, at any given time 180,000 to 270,000 MT will be in garbage stock piles, undergoing digestion. In land filling and composting processes a leachate is produced, which has a very high BOD value and contaminates soil and water. 

How Can Delta-D Technology Solve the Fertiliser Problem in the Country?

Sri Lanka is one of the very few countries in the world that does not produce fertilizer for its own requirements, despite having a large 30-60 million ton deposit of rock phosphate at Eppawela. At present, all the fertilizer requirements of the country are imported at a massive cost. To add to this burden the government gives a massive fertilizer subsidy, which amounted to around Rs. 40 billion in 2014, to the farmers of the country. Despite the fertilizer subsidy and other high costs incurred by the government the agriculture industry is in a very sad state of affairs, where, the farmers are suffering due to low profits and the consumers are suffering due to the high cost of agricultural produce, such as, rice, cereals, vegetables, fruits, etc.

What is the main reason for the high cost and the low profitability in farming in Sri Lanka?

A Brief History of Agriculture in Sri Lanka, Past and Present:AgriImportation of Large Quantities o Chemical Fertiliser:

In the past, Traditional farming practices were followed from the time of ancient kings, where high agricultural yields were obtained by improving the fertility of the land at a very low cost, by applying organic manure produced from naturally occurring organic waste.

At Present day farming in Sri Lanka is done by using imported chemical fertilizers, which are very expensive. The annual chemical fertilizer cost to the country is around Rs. 15 billion (in 2006) and the annual fertilizer subsidy given by the government to farmers is around Rs. 9 billion (in 2006) . According to most of the soil scientists and agro scientists, approximately 75% (of value Rs. 11.25 Billion (in 2006)) of the chemical fertilizers applied to the soil gets washed away due to their very high solubility in water and ends up in ground water, canals, rivers and lakes. These facts clearly indicate that use of chemical fertilizers has increased the cost of agriculture and is also a main source of water pollution in Sri lanka. It has been reported in agricultural journals, most developed countries are increasing the use of organic fertilizer in agriculture, to combat water pollution and to reduce the cost of fertilizer in their agricultural industries. According to two Israel agro scientists, that I met at Janatha Fertiliser Enterprises Ltd. (former JEDB Fertiliser), Israel has replaced a 80-90% of Urea with organic fertilizers, to minimize soil and water pollution and for sustainable, eco friendly agriculture.

The current fertilizer situation in Sri Lanka can be understood  by reading the following Websites.

Sri Lanka to ban chemical fertilizer imports in ‘near future …

https://economynext.com › sri-lanka-to-ban-chemical-f…

Apr 23, 2021 — Sri Lanka was now spending 400 million dollars a year in fertilizer imports. “The usage of chemical fertilizers leads to a better harvest,” President had told a meeting of state enterprise chiefs.



Sri Lanka to ban import, use of fertilizer, agro-chemicals to …

https://economynext.com › sri-lanka-to-ban-import-use…

Apr 30, 2021 — Sri Lanka has spent 221 million US dollars on fertilizer imports in 2019. With the rise in oil prices the cost of imported fertilizer could rise to 300 …



The ban overkill: Cessation of chemical fertiliser imports …

http://www.ft.lk › columns › The-ban-overkill-Cessatio…

May 3, 2021 — The ban overkill: Cessation of chemical fertiliser imports … Notwithstanding the high import share of food in Sri Lankan plates, the ban wagon started with the imposition of a range of restrictions on food imports (using taxes, …



Shipments turned away; Govt. pushes ahead with chemical …

http://www.sundaytimes.lk › news › shipments-turned-a…

May 2, 2021 — Noting that at present, 95,000 metric tonnes of TSP are imported annually at the cost of USD 38 million (Rs 7 billion), the Ministry said its target was to increase the use of organic fertiliser up to 30 percent within the next three years under the Saubagyaye Dekma project.

How does chemical fertilizers affect the health of people?

 It has been reported in newspapers and scientific journals, that, people living in farming areas, such as, Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa where high quantities of chemical fertilizers are used, are suffering from kidney and liver related diseases, due to pollution of, ground water, lakes and other water bodies that supply drinking waster. Blue baby syndrome has been reported in Kalpitiya, an agricultural area, where ground water has got severely polluted due to excessive use of chemical fertilizers This is not a problem specific to Sri Lanka, but a global phenomenon, prevalent in countries that use chemical fertilizers. Most of these countries are advocating the use of organic fertilizer in place of chemical fertilizers. These facts clearly indicate, that, use of chemical fertilizers pollute water, causes diseases and severely compromise the health of people.

Eco friendly, sustainable agriculture through application of Organic Fertiliser?

During the long years that were spent on research to develop Delta-D technology, I interviewed and discussed with experienced farmers on their view of application of chemical fertilizers and agrochemicals in agriculture. Most of them said that, the eco system comprising of, natural habitats  biodiversity, food chain, soil and water, have been badly affected by the application of chemical fertilizers and agrochemicals. Infact most of them said that insect populations, who contribute towards pollination of flowers, which is an extremely important process carried out by nature, to convert flowers into fruits, such as, honey bees, have been destroyed due to the use chemicals. They were of view that through the use of organic fertilizer, it would be possible to reintroduce, eco friendly sustainable agriculture, which has been practiced from the times of ancient kings up to recent times.

In this context, I would like to mention that Late Mr. Dayasiri Dewanarayana (Dip. Agri.) (Tele: 0785118888), President of Board of Control of Sri Lanka School of Agriculture and Past Students’ Association  has obtained a yield of 196.5 bushels of paddy from 1 acre in Anuradhapura in the year 1968-1969, by using only organic manure.

The present average yield of paddy per acre, by using chemical fertilizers, is said to be around 80 bushels in Anuradhapura.  

Can we produce large quantities of organic fertilizer in Sri Lanka?

Most farmers in Sri Lanka know the benefits of application of organic fertilizer into the soil. However, they cannot practically do it, due to the high cost and the very low availability of organic fertilizer in the market. The main reason for this is organic fertilizer is manufactured in Sri Lanka by traditional micro-organic processes, which take 3-4 months, require large extents of land and have highly variable quality. With Delta-D technology, mass production of organic fertilizer is possible, since the process is  quick (1-3 days), requires less land and gives a uniform quality and consistency. 

In Sri Lanka, the annual paddy production is around 2.5 million tons. With each ton of paddy, 1.6 tons o straw is produced as a result of which the total straw production in the country is around 4.0 million tons per year. When fertilizer is applied to the rice plant, it gets distributed in the plant and the straw contains a large proportion of N (Nitrogen), P (Phosphorous), K (Potassium) and other mineral nutrients. Similarly, all organic waste, such as, leafs of plants, grass, salvinia, water hyacinth, market waste, farm waste, etc, contains variable amounts of N,P and K.

Despite the fact that straw has a substantial content of N (0.6%) and K (as K2O –  1.6%), etc., farmers are unable to convert the straw into organic fertilizer and put back into their fields, due to the lack of proper technology. As a result they just burn off the straw.

If straw and other organic wastes can be converted into NPK and mineral rich organic fertilizer and put back to the paddy field it could give back the NPK to the soil. The organic component of straw can promote the development of an eco system, bio diversity and food chain in the soil, thereby promoting micro and macro-organic activity beneficial to the soil, such as nitrogen fixation and CO2 production.

Through Delta D technology, straw, paddy husk as well as any other plant and animal refuse can be converted into organic fertilizer in 1-3 days, whereas, traditional composting processes require more than 3 months. Hence, if all the straw and other plant and animal wastes are converted to mineral rich organic fertilizer by this process, it can replace imported fertilizers, such as, urea by more than 50%. This will reduce the large burden on the government due to reduced fertilizer subsidy and will provide a cheap mineral rich organic fertiliser that is produced in Sri Lanka, using local material. It will be the beginning of an agricultural revolution in the country.

How can Delta-D Technology enhance the value of mineral resources in Sri Lanka?

In Sri Lanka, we have a 60 million ton deposit of rock phosphate at Eppawela, called ERP, in the North Central Province, of Sri Lanka. Since ERP is of metamorphic origin, its water solubility is very low, due to which, it cannot be used as a fertilizer for annual crops, and in Sri Lanka, around 35,000 tons per annum is mined, powdered and used as a fertilizer for perennial crops, such as, tea, rubber and coconuts. As a result, chemical fetilisers, such as, Single Super Phosphate (SSP), Triple Super Phosphate (TSP), Diammonium Phosphate (DAP), etc. is imported into the country at a cost of around Rs. 4 Billion. When Delta-D Technology is used, in the neutralization stage of Delta-D, ERP is added, so that, while Delta-D is neutralized the water solubility ERP is increased acceptable levels. This process enhances the value of ERP three fold.

In Sri Lanka, we have a 50-100 million tons of deposit of Dolomite (CaCO3.MgCO3), scattered right round the country. Water solubility of Dolomite is very low, due to which, it cannot be used as a fertilizer for annual crops, and in Sri Lanka, around 25,000 tons per annum is mined, powdered and used as a fertilizer for perennial crops, such as, tea, rubber and coconuts. As a result, chemical fetilisers, such as, Kiesserite (MgSO4.H2O) and Epsom Salt (MgSO4.7H2O), etc. is imported into the country at a cost of around Rs. 400 Million. When Delta-D Technology is used, in the neutralization stage of Delta-D, Dolomite is added, so that, while Delta-D is neutralized the water solubility of Dolomite is increased acceptable levels. This process enhances the value of Dolomite six fold.

Benefits of organic fertiliser

Increase of water and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the soil and atmosphere due to organic fertiliser

Organic soil is permeable, can absorb and retain more water. It also produces a carbon dioxide (CO2) rich environment due to micro-organic respiration activity. In the atmosphere the CO2 concentration is only 0.03%, where as, it has been reported by researchers that in an organic soil environment CO2 levels are as high as 0.8%. Moreover, it has been well established by researchers that the CO­2 level in ground water in an organic soil environment is very much higher than otherwise.

Since, water (H2O) and carbon dioxide CO­­2 are the main reactants in Photosynthesis, which produces Glucose by combining CO2 and water according to the following famous reaction, agricultural yield in an organic environment will be much higher, due to the higher availability of CO­2 and water, than in an inorganic environment created by continuous use of chemical fertilizers and agrochemicals.

6  CO2   +   6  H2O   ————–  C6H12O6   +   6  O2

Nitrogen fixation by microorganisms in organic soil

Nitrogen (N) is an essential plant nutrient, since, it is required to produce chlorophyll and for other metabolic reactions that occur in a plant. The growth of leafs in a plant is mainly due to the presence of N and the above mentioned photosynthesis reactions occur in the leaves of plants. If a plant does not have many leafs, its growth will be greatly impaired due to low levels of photosynthesis. Hence, large quantities of N fertilizer, such as, Urea, Ammonium Sulphate, Diamonium Phosphate, etc., is imported to Sri Lanka at a massive cost, for all types of agriculture. The annual import of Urea is more than 300,000 MT and the cost is around Rs. 12 Billion (in 2006). Since, Urea is produced from natural gas (a petroleum derivative), whenever petroleum prices increase in the international market, the price of Urea also increases.

The atmosphere (air) contains 79% N. However, this N cannot be absorbed by a plant. However, when Organic Fertiliser is applied to soil, microorganisms start living in the soil because organic fertilizer provides food for them. With time microorganic population increases in the soil. Many of these microorganisms synthesise proteins by taking N from air. Hence, after some time, the N level in the soil increases. This is called nitrogen fixation, where, Nitrogen available in the atmosphere (air) is captured and put into the soil by micro organisms, free of charge. 

Hence, when a seed is planted in organic soil, it will develop a large root system due to the high permeability of the soil and subsequently grows very fast due to the high availability of water, CO2 , N and other minerals in the organic environment. Moreover, when the soil is rich in organic matter, the soil will capture and retain water, the soil will be much cooler and the respiration of the roots will be much higher due to the high porosity of the soil.

How can Delta D technology reduce the cost of fertilizer in the country?

At present, almost all the fertilizer requirements of the country are imported. Cost of imported Urea, TSP, SSP, DAP, MOP and other is around Rs. 50 billion. Despite the fact that we have a 60 million ton deposit of rock phosphate containing around 28% P2O5 at Eppawela and millions of tons of dolomite containing variable quantities of MgO right around the island, we import most of our P and Mg containing fertilizers at a cost of around Rs. 4 billion. We also have sea bitterns (the liquid residue that remains in salterns after removing salt from sea water), which contains Mg and K. We also have varieties of mica and other minerals that have high levels of K. The waste material produced in animal farms, slaughter houses, fish, meat, vegetables and fruit markets, hotels, food factories, etc., contain large amounts N, P and K. In paddy farming we produce around 5.0 million tons of straw and paddy husk. We also have wildly growing grass and shrub jungles that produce large quantities of organic waste, such as leaves of plants. Our lakes and waterways are covered with salvinia, water hyacinth, etc..

With Delta D technology, we can produce organic fertilizer from all the above mentioned organic waste and minerals at a low cost and give for local agriculture, so that costs can be reduced, there by benefiting the farmers, as well as, the general population of the country.

When we produce our own fertilizer, our agricultural industry will not be subject to price increases of fertilizer in the world market.

Can Delta-D Technology be used to reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions to the Atmosphere and to Earn Money by Carbon Trading in the International Carbon Finance Market?

Greenhouse effect, global warming and climate change have been the most important topics at almost all international scientific and political forums, since, during the past few years the entire world has experienced rapid changes in the climate. By the Kyoto Protocol, many countries have agreed to curtail the emission of green house gases, such CO2, CH4, etc into the atmosphere, and to grant funds to projects that will reduce the emission of green house gases.

It was mentioned in earlier sections that we produce around 5.0 million tons of straw and paddy husk and that most of it is burnt by farmers. Each ton of straw that is burnt produce around 1.6 tons of CO2. Hence, by haphazard burning of straw and paddy husk, we emit around 6.4 million tons of CO2 to the atmosphere, significantly contributing towards global warming and climate change.

If we use Delta D technology, we can convert straw and paddy husk into organic fertliser, thereby stopping the burning of straw. The amount of CO2 emission that is prevented will be around 6.4 million tons and the corresponding earnings by carbon trading will be around USD 76.8 million at the rate of USD 12 per ton of CO2.

The Project Carried Out by Janatha Fertiliser

After several rounds of demonstrations and talks between me and the management of Janatha Fertiliser Enterprises Ltd. (JFEL), headed by Mr. Dharmaratne Herath, Working Director, JFEL has commenced a project to convert, straw,  produced in rice growing areas into organic fertilizer.

Under this project, I have already trained around 1330 farmers who are prospective fertilizer manufacturers to produce organic fertliser from rice straw. The method used is as follows.

  1. 1 Litre of Delta-D is mixed with 50 litres of water and around 35 kg is wetted with it.
  2. The wetted straw is laid on plastic sheets and exposed to the sun for 2-3 days.
  3. After 2-3 days the straw crumbles into powder.
  4. The 35 kg of digested straw is wetted with 10 litres of water and is mixed with 5 kg of Eppawela Rock Phosphate and stored for 2 days.
  5. The mixture produced in step 4 is mixed with 500g of Dolomite.
  6. Now the product is ready for use as the first fertiliser application for paddy cultivation.
  7. For other annual crops and perennial crops, the composition of the fertilizer can be adjusted by adding plant and animal wastes digested with Delta-D to the digested straw.
  8. The advantage of using straw as the main raw material is that, in Sri Lanka, paddy cultivation is the main agricultural activity and the annual production in Sri Lanka is, 2.5 million tons of paddy and 3.75 million tons of straw.     

Composting Domestic and Industrial Organic Waste at Site without Dumping into Garbage Heaps

Delta-D can be used to convert all types of domestic and industrial waste into organic fertilizer at site, without sending it to garbage dumps. If it is done in a commercial scale it can be a profitable venture. On the other hand, it will lead to reduction of volume of waste going into garbage dumps, thereby reducing handling and dumping costs borne by the local authorities. It will also lead to cleaner cities.

The method that can be used by any household or industry is as follows.

  1. Mix 1 litre of Delta-D with 4 litres of water in a 20L plastic bucket.
  2. Organic waste should be separated from non degradables, such as, plastics, glass, metal, soil, stones etc. and put into the bucket containing Delta-D on a daily basis and mixed thoroughly with a pole.
  3. This should be done daily until the bucket contains around 25-30 kg. You will notice that, there is no bad smell, no flies, no insects, no maggots in the bucket even after a few weeks.
  4. When the bucket is full, you should add 2 kg of Eppawela Rock Phosphate and mix thoroughly and allow to remain for 2 days.
  5. After 2 days, you should add 300 grammes of powdered dolomite and mix thoroughly. Now the fertilizer is ready for sale or for your own agricultural activities.
  6. The cost of the fertilizer will be around Rs. 12.00 per kg. The present market price of compost fertilizer is around Rs. 20.00 – 40.00 per kg. 

Conversion of Fish Waste, Slaughterhouse Waste, Poultry Farm Waste, Dairy Farm Waste, Animal Excreta and Other Animal Waste into Organic Fertiliser

The method that can be used to convert waste from fish market, slaughterhouse, meat market, poultry farms, piggeries, dairies, etc. into high NPKCaMg Organic Fertiliser.

Method:

  1. Take a 50L Plastic Bucket.
  2. Put 4L of delta-D into the plastic bucket.
  3. Gradually add Fish Waste, Slaughterhouse Waste, Poultry Farm Waste, Dairy Farm Waste, Animal Excreta and Other Animal Waste, while mixing with a wooden paddle manually or with a motor drive mixer until a slurry is obtained
  4. This should be done daily until the bucket contains around 60 kg of waste. You will notice that, there is no bad smell, no flies, no insects, no maggots in the bucket even after a few weeks.
  5. When the bucket is full, you should add 30 kg sawdust or paddy straw powder, mix thoroughly and allow to get digest for 1 week.
  6. After 1 week thoroughly mix and add 20kg of Eppawela Rock Phosphate and allow to react for 2 days.
  7. After 2 days, you should add 15kg of powdered dolomite and mix thoroughly. Now the fertilizer is ready for sale or for your own agricultural activities.
  8. The total yield of organic fertiliser will be around 150 kg.
  9. The fertilizer has a higher percentage of N, P, K, C, and other plant nutrients than traditional compost fertilizer.
  10. The cost of the fertilizer will be around Rs. 15.00 per kg. The present market price of compost fertilizer is around Rs. 20.00 – 40.00 per kg. 

Conversion of Vegetable and Fruit Market Waste, Garden Waste and Weeds   into Organic Fertiliser

The method that can be used to convert waste from ish market, slaughterhouse, meat market, poultry farms, piggeries, dairies, etc. into high NPKCaMg Organic Fertiliser.

Method:

  1. Take a 50L Plastic Bucket.
  2. Put 4L of delta-D into the plastic bucket.
  3. Gradually add Vegetable and Fruit Market Waste, Garden Waste and Weeds   while mixing with a wooden paddle manually or with a motor drive mixer until a slurry is obtained
  4. This should be done daily until the bucket contains around 60 kg of waste. You will notice that, there is no bad smell, no flies, no insects, no maggots in the bucket even after a few weeks.
  5. When the bucket is full, you should add 30 kg sawdust or paddy straw powder, mix thoroughly and allow to get digest for 1 week.
  6. After 1 week thoroughly mix and add 20kg of Eppawela Rock Phosphate and allow to react for 2 days.
  7. After 2 days, you should add 15kg of powdered dolomite and mix thoroughly. Now the fertilizer is ready for sale or for your own agricultural activities.
  8. The total yield of organic fertiliser will be around 150 kg.
  9. The fertilizer has a higher percentage of N, P, K, C, and other plant nutrients than traditional compost fertilizer.
  10. The cost of the fertilizer will be around Rs. 15.00 per kg. The present market price of compost fertilizer is around Rs. 20.00 – 40.00 per kg. 

Cost of Production of Organic Fertilizer from Organic Waste

All inclusive cost of production of organic fertilizer using the above process is Rs. 12- 15 per kg. This fertilizer can be sold out at a price of Rs. 20 – 30 per kg. The investment pay back period is less than 1 year.

If you are interested, we can carryout a demonstration at your premises to show how it works. During the demonstration, we will produce 50 to 100 kg of organic fertilizer from an assortment of waste materials, such as, vegetables, fruit, fish, meat, cooked food, grass, garden waste, waste tea, straw, saw dust, etc., within 1 Hour and give you for your own testing. To conduct a workshop of 4 hrs duration for any number of participants our charges are, in the City of Colombo – Rs. 40,000. Out of Colombo –  Rs. 60,000.00 per workshop plus traveling at the rate of Rs. 70.00 per km. To conduct a workshop at my residence in Ratmalana of 2-3 hrs duration for any number of participants our charges are, Rs. 30,000.00 per workshop.  In a workshop, all possible aspects of organic fertilizer manufacture, using Delta-D technology is taught and demonstrated to participants.

Emeritus.Prof. Anul Perera– DSc(USA), BSc(Eng), CEng, PE(SL), IntPE(SL), FIE(SL), MAIChE(USA).

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