The UK-based award celebrates works of translated fiction and is given to both the author and English-language translator.
Each shortlisted author and translator has already received £1,000, and is up for a £50,000 prize to be divided equally between the winning pair.
This year's list includes two Israeli authors, including the celebrated Amos Oz, who is competing for the prize for the second time.
They will be up against three European and one South American author, which were shortlisted from a longlist of 13 authors.
"Our shortlist spans the epic and the everyday," said Nick Barley, chair of judges.
"From fevered dreams to sleepless nights, from remote islands to overwhelming cities, these wonderful novels shine a light on compelling individuals struggling to make sense of their place in a complex world."
Here is a look into the authors and the works selected for the 2017 Man Booker International Prize:
Compass, by Mathias Enard (France) - Translated by Charlotte Mandell
The story of an insomniac musicologist who, in feverish delirium, recalls the most important bits of his adventurous life, including his travels to Istanbul, Aleppo, Damascus and Tehran.
"An immersive, nocturnal, musical novel, full of generous erudition and bittersweet humour," said the judges.
"Compass is a journey and a declaration of admiration, a quest for the otherness inside us all and a hand reaching out - like a bridge between West and East, yesterday and tomorrow."
A Horse Walks Into A Bar, by David Grossman (Israel) - Translated by Jessica Cohen
In a small Israeli comedy club, a stand up artist falls apart on stage, leaving his audience fascinated by the misery of his act.
"Charming, erratic, repellent," the judges said.
The Unseen, by Roy Jacobsen (Norway) - Translated by Don Bartlett
A coming-of-age story of a girl born on an island who is sent to the mainland to work for one of the wealthy families on the coast.
"Even by his high standards, his magnificent new novel The Unseen is Jacobsen's finest to date," wrote the Irish Times.
"As blunt as it is subtle."
Mirror, Shoulder, Signal, by Dorthe Nors (Denmark) - Translated by Misha Hoekstra
The novel follows an intelligent single woman in her 40s whose life lacks focus and who is determined to solve all her spiritual problems.
"Nors' writing is by turns witty, gut wrenching, stark and lyrical," wrote the LA Times.
Judas, by Amos Oz (Israel) - Translated by Nicholas de Lange
Oz's 20th published work of fiction tells the story of a young, idealist student drawn to a strange house, forced to rethink the beginning of religion.
"Judas is a tragicomic coming-of-age tale and a radical rethinking of the concept of treason," wrote the judges.
Fever Dream, by Samanta Schweblin (Argentina) - Translated by Megan McDowell
The story of a woman and a boy in a rural hospital clinic, one forcing the other to recall the past.
"Hundreds of novels have flooded me with heartbreak or compassion, but very few - maybe none - have made me feel libidinous or spooked," wrote the New Yorker's Jia Yolentino.
The 2017 winner will be announced on 14 June in a ceremony at London's Victoria and Albert Museum.
The Man Booker International Prize complements the Man Booker Prize for Fiction. Together, they celebrate the best books from around the globe, published in the UK and available in English.